Latvia is historically predominantly Lutheran Protestant, except for the Latgale region in the southeast, which has historically been predominantly Roman Catholic. [15][16][17] Since Latvia's independence in 1918, it has been referred to as one of the Baltic states. The winter in Latvia usually lasts from mid-December to the beginning of March. Jun Do not forget to take with you warm clothes! [citation needed] The rise in use of the Latvian language in literature and society became known as the First National Awakening. The Young Latvian (Latvian: Jaunlatvieši) movement laid the groundwork for nationalism from the middle of the century, many of its leaders looking to the Slavophiles for support against the prevailing German-dominated social order. RESIDENT POPULATION ON MARCH 1, 2011 BY ETHNICITY, SEX AND AGE GROUP", "THNICITIES OF RESIDENT POPULATION IN STATISTICAL REGIONS, CITIES UNDER STATE JURISDICTION AND COUNTIES BY LANGUAGE MOSTLY SPOKEN AT HOME; ON 1 MARCH 2011", "Referendum on the Draft Law 'Amendments to the Constitution of the Republic of Latvia, "Results of the referendum on the Draft Law 'Amendments to the Constitution of the Republic of Latvia, "Latvia pushes majority language in schools, leaving parents miffed", "Moscow threatens sanctions against Latvia over removal of Russian from secondary schools", "Government okays transition to Latvian as sole language at schools in 2019", "Statistics of approved parishes in Latvia", "Latvia's Healthcare System is Funded by General Taxation and All Latvians and Foreign Residents Are Guaranteed Medical Care | Find Articles at BNET", "Latvia has worst health care system in Europe :: The Baltic Course | Baltic States news & analytics", "Latvian Health Official Resigns Over Cuts", "The basic indicators of health care, at the end of the year", "The Baltic States and their health systems – From Soviet to EU", http://www.imc-cim.org/programmes/imc_diversity_report.pdf, "Typical Latvian Food and Drink Recipes. [citation needed] Latvia has ratified the international Washington, Bern, and Ramsare conventions. Extension from north to south is 210 km (130 mi) and from west to east 450 km (280 mi). Demands for self-determination were initially confined to autonomy, until a power vacuum was created by the Russian Revolution in 1917, followed by the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk between Russia and Germany in March 1918, then the Allied armistice with Germany on 11 November 1918. How cold is it in Latvia in December? [86][93], Latvia has the 5th highest proportion of land covered by forests in the European Union, after Sweden, Finland, Estonia and Slovenia. [36] The first missionaries, sent by the Pope, sailed up the Daugava River in the late 12th century, seeking converts. [61] The Soviet Union incorporated Latvia on 5 August 1940, as The Latvian Soviet Socialist Republic. By 29 June Riga was reached and with Soviet troops killed, captured or retreating, Latvia was left under the control of German forces by early July. In 2017, Latvian tennis player Jeļena Ostapenko won the 2017 French Open Women's singles title being the first unseeded player to do so in the open era. Mires occupy 9.9% of Latvia's territory. 250 people identify as Livonians (Baltic Finnic people native to Latvia). For Latvian student corporation, see, Country on the eastern shore of the Baltic Sea, Reformation period and Polish–Lithuanian rule, Livonia & Courland in the Russian Empire (1795–1917), Economic contraction and recovery (2008–12). [113] Nordic-Baltic Six (NB-6), comprising Nordic-Baltic countries that are European Union member states, is a framework for meetings on EU-related issues. Find out more about our data sources. However, most indigenous Latvians did not participate in this particular cultural life. Climate in Latvia in december Climate in Riga in december. Winds SSE at 10 to 15 mph. After the German surrender, it became clear that Soviet forces were there to stay, and Latvian national partisans, soon joined by some who had collaborated with the Germans, began to fight against the new occupier. Latvia showed signs of economic recovery, and the electorate had steadily moved toward the centre during the parliamentary period. Population by citizenship and ethnicity at the beginning of the year", "Socialinguistica: language and Religion", "Latvia – Country Profile: Human Development Indicators", "History of Latvia - Lonely Planet Travel Information", "Collector Coin Dedicated to 18th Century Riga", "Cēsis, Battle of | International Encyclopedia of the First World War (WW1)", Patriots or Nazi collaborators? [57] In total 50,000 Baltic Germans left by the deadline of December 1939, with 1,600 remaining to conclude business and 13,000 choosing to remain in Latvia. From 1 January 2007, Latvia switched to a professional fully contract-based army. [143] Latvian armed forces contributed to a UK-led Battlegroup in 2013 and the Nordic Battlegroup in 2015 under the Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP) of the European Union. [208], During July 2014, Riga hosted the 8th World Choir Games as it played host to over 27,000 choristers representing over 450 choirs and over 70 countries. [204], Between the 13th and 19th centuries, Baltic Germans, many of whom were originally of non-German ancestry but had been assimilated into German culture, formed the upper class. During the Soviet era, music became increasingly popular, with the most popular being songs from the 1980s. Latvian cuisine has been influenced by the neighbouring countries. [citation needed], A freely elected Constituent assembly convened on 1 May 1920, and adopted a liberal constitution, the Satversme, in February 1922. Mostly Clear. [48], The emancipation of the serfs took place in Courland in 1817 and in Vidzeme in 1819. In the course of the war, both occupying forces conscripted Latvians into their armies, in this way increasing the loss of the nation's "live resources". As a result, Latvia is running a biocapacity reserve. [205], The Latvian Song and Dance Festival is an important event in Latvian culture and social life. This aroused popular protests against the USSR and also gave rise to an increasing popularity of poetry. [87], Latvia has four pronounced seasons of near-equal length. [49], During the 19th century, the social structure changed dramatically. [124][136][137], The National Armed Forces (Latvian: Nacionālie Bruņotie Spēki (NAF)) of Latvia consists of the Land Forces, Naval Forces, Air Force, National Guard, Special Tasks Unit, Military Police, NAF staff Battalion, Training and Doctrine Command, and Logistics Command. The most successful Olympic athlete in the history of independent Latvia has been Māris Štrombergs, who became a two-time Olympic champion in 2008 and 2012 at Men's BMX.[217]. As of 2014[update] there were 109 schools for minorities that use Russian as the language of instruction (27% of all students) for 40% of subjects (the remaining 60% of subjects are taught in Latvian). [citation needed][107]. [4], The Saeima, Latvia's parliament, was again elected in 1993. [citation needed] Thus, the mostly peasant local pagan heritage was preserved, partly merging with Christian traditions. [71] An influx of new colonists, including laborers, administrators, military personnel and their dependents from Russia and other Soviet republics started. Virtually all of the previously state-owned small and medium companies have been privatised, leaving only a small number of politically sensitive large state companies. In 2012, 45.0% of births were to unmarried women. [187] According to the Central Election Commission, 74.8% voted against, 24.9% voted for and the voter turnout was 71.1%. Latvia co-operates with Estonia and Lithuania in several trilateral Baltic defence co-operation initiatives: Future co-operation will include sharing of national infrastructures for training purposes and specialisation of training areas (BALTTRAIN) and collective formation of battalion-sized contingents for use in the NATO rapid-response force. [183], The share of ethnic Latvians had fallen from 77% (1,467,035) in 1935 to 52% (1,387,757) in 1989. Riga, Latvia Yearly Monthly Climate Weather Averages. [citation needed], Foreign investment in Latvia is still modest compared with the levels in north-central Europe. Get the latest coronavirus (COVID-19) updates for Latvia with current travel advice, statistics and online resources. The climate is far different from that of Labrador, however, because of the effect of the Gulf Stream flowing across the Atlantic Ocean from Mexico. There are usually 20 days with some rain in Riga, Latvia in December and the average monthly rainfall is 49mm. [94] Forests account for 3,497,000 ha (8,640,000 acres) or 56% of the total land area. Russia ended its military presence by completing its troop withdrawal in 1994 and shutting down the Skrunda-1 radar station in 1998. Ice hockey is usually considered the most popular sport in Latvia. Riga became the capital of Swedish Livonia and the largest city in the entire Swedish Empire. The first snow there is only at the end of November – beginning of December and it melts too fast so it’s always wet here at the late fall. [53] After 1934, Ulmanis established government corporations to buy up private firms with the aim of "Latvianising" the economy. A full member of the Eurozone, it began using the euro as its currency on 1 January 2014, replacing the Latvian lats. [181], As of March 2011, Latvians form about 62.1% of the population, while 26.9% are Russians, Belarusians 3.3%, Ukrainians 2.2%, Poles 2.2%, Lithuanians 1.2%, Jews 0.3%, Romani people 0.3%, Germans 0.1%, Estonians 0.1% and others 1.3%. [53] 30,000 Jews were shot in Latvia in the autumn of 1941. The air temperature will still be 0.. -4 degrees Celsius on Tuesday night, from -1 in the east to +3.. +4 degrees Celsius on the coast in the daytime. Aug [37], German crusaders were sent, or more likely decided to go on their own accord as they were known to do. [2] As of 2004 there were more than 600 Latvian neopagans, Dievturi (The Godskeepers), whose religion is based on Latvian mythology. Oak (Quercus robur, Latvian: ozols), and linden (Tilia cordata, Latvian: liepa) are Latvia's national trees and the daisy (Leucanthemum vulgare, Latvian: pīpene) its national flower. It is bordered by Estonia to the north, Lithuania to the south, Russia to the east, Belarus to the southeast, and shares a maritime border with Sweden to the west. Nov Posters show the influence of other European cultures, for example, works of artists such as the Baltic-German artist Bernhard Borchert and the French Raoul Dufy. SSE 10 mph Mostly cloudy with snow showers during the morning. Metric (°C / mm)  |  Imperial (°F / inches), Get your weekly fix of holiday inspiration from some of the world's best travel writers plus save on your next trip with the latest exclusive offers. 11 00. Swap your heavy winter boots for a pair of glittering heals at … Latvia (/ˈlɑːtviə/ or /ˈlætviə/ (listen); Latvian: Latvija [ˈlatvija]), officially known as the Republic of Latvia (Latvian: Latvijas Republika), is a country in the Baltic region of Northern Europe. [citation needed] Latvia was one of the EuroBasket 2015 hosts. Latvia is a unitary state, currently divided into 110 one-level municipalities (Latvian: novadi) and 9 republican cities (Latvian: republikas pilsētas) with their own city council and administration: Daugavpils, Jēkabpils, Jelgava, Jūrmala, Liepāja, Rēzekne, Riga, Valmiera, and Ventspils. [85] Latvia's Red Book (Endangered Species List of Latvia), which was established in 1977, contains 112 plant species and 119 animal species. Sauna. July is the hottest month in Riga with an average temperature of 17°C (63°F) and the coldest is February at -4.5°C (24°F) with the most daily sunshine hours at 12 in June. Unique geological conditions at Inčukalns and other locations in Latvia are particularly suitable for underground gas storage.[178]. [201][202][203], Traditional Latvian folklore, especially the dance of the folk songs, dates back well over a thousand years. Its national insect is the two-spot ladybird (Adalia bipunctata, Latvian: divpunktu mārīte). The Latvian climate is maritime and temperate in nature, with cool summers and wet, relatively moderate winters. Below are average maximum temperatures at popular destinations in Latvia in December. [citation needed] The Young Latvians were largely eclipsed by the New Current, a broad leftist social and political movement, in the 1890s. 70% percent of the mires are untouched by civilization, and they are a refuge for many rare species of plants and animals. Apart from road and railway connections, Ventspils is also linked to oil extraction fields and transportation routes of Russian Federation via system of two pipelines from Polotsk, Belarus. Under Swedish and largely German rule, western Latvia adopted Lutheranism as its main religion. ", "Sabres' Girgensons expands lead as top vote-getter in 2015 NHL All-Star Fan Vote presented by SiriusXM", "Pajon, Strombergs win Olympic BMX Finals", The Shadow in the East: Vladimir Putin and the New Baltic Front, Latvian Soviet Socialist Republic 1944-1991, Sovereign states and dependencies of Europe, autonomous country of the Kingdom of Denmark, Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe, Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights, Special administrative regions of the People's Republic of China, Separate Customs Territory of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen and Matsu, Commission against Racism and Intolerance, Organisation internationale de la Francophonie, Agence de Coopération Culturelle et Technique, Prix des cinq continents de la francophonie, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Latvia&oldid=994166887, Member states of the Union for the Mediterranean, Members of the Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization, Russian-speaking countries and territories, States and territories established in 1918, States and territories established in 1991, CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown, Articles with Latvian-language sources (lv), Articles with dead external links from August 2019, Articles with permanently dead external links, Articles with dead external links from June 2016, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Latvian-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2015, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2009, Articles needing additional references from March 2015, All articles needing additional references, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2014, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2011, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from September 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2007, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1922 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz area identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Officially the Republic of China, participates as ", This page was last edited on 14 December 2020, at 12:02. [54], Early in the morning of 24 August 1939, the Soviet Union and Nazi Germany signed a 10-year non-aggression pact, called the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact. [32], Around 3000 BC, the proto-Baltic ancestors of the Latvian people settled on the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea. [93], Agricultural areas account for 1,815,900 ha (4,487,000 acres) or 29% of the total land area. The 19th century and beginning of the 20th century is often regarded by Latvians as a classical era of Latvian culture. In the summer of 1988, a national movement, coalescing in the Popular Front of Latvia, was opposed by the Interfront. [158] However, the chiefly consumption-driven growth in Latvia resulted in the collapse of Latvian GDP in late 2008 and early 2009, exacerbated by the global economic crisis, shortage of credit and huge money resources used for the bailout of Parex bank. Latvia participates in several NATO Centres of Excellence: Civil-Military Co-operation in the Netherlands, Cooperative Cyber Defence in Estonia and Energy Security in Lithuania. In 2017 there were a total of 803,546 licensed vehicles in Latvia. Despite foreign rule from the 13th to 20th centuries, the Latvian nation maintained its identity throughout the generations via the language and musical traditions. However, as a consequence of centuries of Russian rule (1710–1918) and later Soviet occupation, 26.9% of the population of Latvia are ethnic Russians,[24] some of whom (10.7% of Latvian residents[25]) have not gained citizenship, leaving them with no citizenship at all. [168] Latvia's current account, which had been in deficit by 27% in late 2006 was in surplus in February 2010. The longest river on Latvian territory is the Gauja, at 452 km (281 mi) in length. Winter starts in mid-December and lasts until mid-March. [70] An extensive program to impose bilingualism was initiated in Latvia, limiting the use of Latvian language in official uses in favor of using Russian as the main language. Winter is cold and dark: temperatures are often below freezing (0 °C or 32 °F), and landscapes are usually snow-covered from December to mid-March. Daytime temperatures usually reach 0°C in Riga, Latvia in December, falling to -5°C at night. [83] With the dismantling of collective farms, the area devoted to farming decreased dramatically – now farms are predominantly small. Latvia has 1,957,200 inhabitants[18] and a territory of 64,589 km2 (24,938 sq mi). [93], Latvia's national parks are Gauja National Park in Vidzeme (since 1973),[95] Ķemeri National Park in Zemgale (1997), Slītere National Park in Kurzeme (1999), and Rāzna National Park in Latgale (2007). Latvia closed 131 schools between 2006 and 2010, which is a 12.9% decline, and in the same period enrolment in educational institutions has fallen by over 54,000 people, a 10.3% decline. The length of Latvia's Baltic coastline is 494 km (307 mi). How sunny is it in Latvia in December? After the Polish–Swedish War, northern Livonia (including Vidzeme) came under Swedish rule. [74] The population of Latvia reached its peak in 1990 at just under 2.7 million people. Of these, 42% are raised bogs; 49% are fens; and 9% are transitional mires. [79], The Republic of Latvia declared the end of the transitional period and restored full independence on 21 August 1991, in the aftermath of the failed Soviet coup attempt. [113] Joint Nordic-Baltic co-operation initiatives include the education programme NordPlus[114] and mobility programmes for public administration,[115] business and industry[116] and culture. On 5 October 1939, Latvia was forced to accept a "mutual assistance" pact with the Soviet Union, granting the Soviets the right to station between 25,000 and 30,000 troops on Latvian territory. [81] The government denationalized private property confiscated by the Soviets, returning it or compensating the owners for it, and privatized most state-owned industries, reintroducing the prewar currency. There are 37 foreign embassies and 11 international organisations in Latvia's capital Riga. The summer climate in Latvia is warm with an average temperature of 17°C, the peak occasionally going as high as 30°C. In the 23rd block of the Vorverker cemetery, a monument was erected after the Second World War for the people of Latvia, who had died in Lübeck from 1945 to 1950. [citation needed] With the onset of World War II, many Latvian artists and other members of the cultural elite fled the country yet continued to produce their work, largely for a Latvian émigré audience. Select a month to view Latvia sunrise & sunset times for the next twelve months. The prices of real estate, which were at some points growing by approximately 5% a month, were long perceived to be too high for the economy, which mainly produces low-value goods and raw materials. All of the minority schools (Jewish, Polish, Belarusian, Estonian, Lithuanian) were closed down leaving only two media of instructions in the schools: Latvian and Russian. The total length of its maritime boundary is 498 km (309 mi), which is shared with Estonia, Sweden and Lithuania. [175], National road network in Latvia totals 1675 km of main roads, 5473 km of regional roads and 13 064 km of local roads. For each destination, Easyvoyage's weather tool gives you temperature and rainfall indicators, along with wind force and direction and sunrise/sunset times. [153] In January 2011, the Baltic states were invited to join NORDEFCO, the defence framework of the Nordic countries. [41] Though the duchy was a vassal state to Poland, it retained a considerable degree of autonomy and experienced a golden age in the 16th century. When peaceful means of conversion failed to produce results, Meinhard plotted to convert Livonians by force of arms. The average climate figure for Latvia is an 6,9. In 1944, part of the Latvian territory once more came under Soviet control. Best time to visit Latvia. [citation needed], In the 19th century, Latvian nationalist movements emerged. Pope Celestine III had called for a crusade against pagans in Northern Europe in 1193. [130], The country has a large ethnic Russian community, which was guaranteed basic rights under the constitution and international human rights laws ratified by the Latvian government. Opera – shine bright like a diamond. Saint Meinhard of Segeberg arrived in Ikšķile, in 1184, traveling with merchants to Livonia, on a Catholic mission to convert the population from their original pagan beliefs. The president appoints a prime minister who, together with his cabinet, forms the executive branch of the government, which has to receive a confidence vote by the Saeima. August is the most wet month. Albeit having experienced a difficult transition to a liberal economy and its re-orientation toward Western Europe, Latvia is one of the fastest growing economies in the European Union. Latvian is the official language. [199] It is among the lowest-ranked healthcare systems in Europe, due to excessive waiting times for treatment, insufficient access to the latest medicines, and other factors. [164], Latvia's unemployment rate rose sharply in this period from a low of 5.4% in November 2007 to over 22%. CCPR/CO/79/LVA, 1 December 2003, "A new kind of citizenship accepted by EU? [citation needed] The Latgale region remained part of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth as Inflanty Voivodeship until 1772, when it was incorporated into Russia. Real GDP growth of 5.5 percent in 2011 was underpinned by export growth and a recovery in domestic demand. Oct An inlet of the Baltic Sea, the shallow Gulf of Riga is situated in the northwest of the country. However, by 2010, commentators[168][169] noted signs of stabilisation in the Latvian economy. [56]:128 There was a pause in fighting, apart from partisan activity, until after the siege of Leningrad ended in January 1944 and the Soviet troops advanced, entering Latvia in July and eventually capturing Riga on 13 October 1944. And from 70 females are 2,3 times more than males. On 1 July 2016, Latvia became a member of the OECD.[82]. Paul Krugman, the Nobel Laureate in economics for 2008, wrote in his New York Times Op-Ed column on 15 December 2008: The most acute problems are on Europe's periphery, where many smaller economies are experiencing crises strongly reminiscent of past crises in Latin America and Asia: Latvia is the new Argentina[167]. Weather; UV index; Wind; Road; Water temperatures; Forecast Children born to non-nationals after the reestablishment of independence are automatically entitled to citizenship. Browse the sunrise & sunset times for Latvia in December 2020. Latvia has a total area of 64,559 km2 (24,926 sq mi) of which 62,157 km2 (23,999 sq mi) land, 18,159 km2 (7,011 sq mi) agricultural land,[83] 34,964 km2 (13,500 sq mi) forest land[84] and 2,402 km2 (927 sq mi) inland water. The white wagtail (Motacilla alba, Latvian: baltā cielava) is Latvia's national bird. This program allows investors to get Latvia residence permit by investing at least €250,000 in property or in an enterprise with at least 50 employees and an annual turnover of at least €10M. Latvia is a developed country with an advanced, high-income economy [27][28] and ranks 39th in the Human Development Index. The Soviets dealt harshly with their opponents – prior to Operation Barbarossa, in less than a year, at least 34,250 Latvians were deported or killed. Monday 14 December. ["'The good Swedish times' in Latvian historiography: from the late 18th century to the 1970s"], CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (. Brittany Ferries  Cruise Nation  DFDS  English Heritage  Enterprise  Explore! In the summer of 1987, the first large demonstrations were held in Riga at the Freedom Monument—a symbol of independence. At Pape Nature Reserve, where European bison, wild horses, and recreated aurochs have been reintroduced, there is now an almost complete Holocene megafauna also including moose, deer, and wolf.[105]. [85], Most of Latvia's territory is less than 100 m (330 ft) above sea level. The coldest season / winter is in the months of January, February and December. The ancient tribes of the Couronians, Semigallians, Selonians, Livs, and northern Latgallians assimilated to form the Latvian people, speaking one Latvian language. [19] Its capital and largest city is Riga; other notable major cities in Latvia are Daugavpils, Liepāja, Jelgava and Jūrmala. [164] As of 2015, Latvia is estimated to have the lowest male-to-female ratio in the world, at 0.85 males/female. [65] Most sources count 200,000 to 250,000 refugees leaving Latvia, with perhaps as many as 80,000 to 100,000 of them recaptured by the Soviets or, during few months immediately after the end of war,[66] returned by the West. Winter is cold and gray, with frequent snowfalls, though usually not abundant. [56]:127 Another 30,000 Jews from the Riga ghetto were killed in the Rumbula Forest in November and December 1941, to reduce overpopulation in the ghetto and make room for more Jews being brought in from Germany and the West. [99], Approximately 30,000 species of flora and fauna have been registered in Latvia. [124][131], Approximately 206,000 non-citizens [132]– including stateless persons – have limited access to some political rights – only citizens are allowed to participate in parliamentary or municipal elections, although there are no limitations in regards to joining political parties or other political organizations. [155], Latvia is a member of the World Trade Organization (1999) and the European Union (2004). The General representative of Germany August Winnig formally handed over political power to the Latvian Provisional Government on 26 November. Since then, it has been amended and is still in effect in Latvia today. In ancient times, amber found along the Baltic Sea coast was sought by Vikings as well as traders from Egypt, Greece and the Roman Empire. The last month of the winter, February, is another freezing cold month in Riga, Latvia, with average temperature fluctuating between -7.6°C (18.3°F) and -1.7°C (28.9°F).In Riga, the average high-temperature is relatively the same as in January - a still subzero cold -1.7°C (28.9°F). [149] Per capita, Latvia is one of the largest contributors to international military operations. The longest river flowing through Latvian territory is the Daugava, which has a total length of 1,005 km (624 mi), of which 352 km (219 mi) is on Latvian territory. There are normally 1 hour of bright sunshine each day in Riga, Latvia in December - that's 12% of daylight hours. In a typical Latvian landscape, a mosaic of vast forests alternates with fields, farmsteads, and pastures. It is also a member of the Council of the Baltic Sea States and Nordic Investment Bank. [96], Latvia has a long tradition of conservation. The Baltic Council is the joint forum of the interparliamentary Baltic Assembly (BA) and the intergovernmental Baltic Council of Ministers (BCM). [38], At the beginning of the 13th century, Germans ruled large parts of what is currently Latvia. The University of Daugavpils is another significant centre of education. The terms inspired the variations on the country's name in Romance languages from "Letonia" and in several Germanic languages from "Lettland". '[75], In the second half of the 1980s, Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev started to introduce political and economic reforms in the Soviet Union that were called glasnost and perestroika. Average temperatures are not so low on the west coast: the daily average in February is around -1.5 °C (29 °F) in Liepaja and -3 °C (27 °F) in Kolka (at the entrance of the Gulf of Riga), while it drops to -5 °C (23 °F) in Riga and to -6 °C (21 °F) in Daugavpils and Kraslava, in the south-east. Since independence, theatre, scenography, choir music, and classical music have become the most notable branches of Latvian culture. The festival is the biggest of its kind in the world and is held every two years in a different host city. Hi/Low, RealFeel®, precip, radar, & everything you need to be ready for the day, commute, and weekend! [211], Grey peas and ham are generally considered as staple foods of Latvians. Latvian non-citizens and the citizenship debates", "Latvia: Investigate Attacks on Gay Activists", "Participation in International operations", "US-led coalition forces operation in OIF (Operation Iraqi Freedom)", "Dombrovskis and US Ambassador Garber visit Riga Airport to inspect cargo plane to Afghanistan", "One year on: ISAF's trans-European supply routes are a success", "NATO opens new communication lines to Afghanistan", "Nordic Military Alliance With Latvia in Afghanistan", "V.Dombrovskis: Latvia sees the opportunity to strengthen NATO's strategic communication capability", "Baltic Defence Ministers announced new defence cooperation initiatives", "Nordic Countries Invite Baltics to Join Defence Co-operation Framework", "Joint Baltic Military Staff to Be Established", "Turpina pieaugt iedzīvotāju atbalsts eiro ieviešanai", "Rimsevics: Failing to bail out Parex banka would result in closing down of four banks in Latvia", "Latvian GDP Shrank 18% in First Quarter, EU's Biggest Fall –", "Agreement between the United States of America and the Republic of Latvia on Trade Relations and Intellectual Property Rights Protection", "Statistical Office of the European Commission (Eurostat), Monthly Bulletin: Table in chapter 09, section 01", "Eurostat – Tables, Graphs and Maps Interface (TGM) table", "UPDATE 2-IMF hails Latvia effort but sees risks ahead", "IMF Executive Board Concludes First Post-Program Monitoring Discussions with the Republic of Latvia, July 16, 2012", "Satiksmes ceļu garums gada beigās (kilometros)", "Reģistrēto automobiļu skaits ceturkšņa beigās", "The Outlook of Latvian Potential Underground Gas Storages and Prospects of Utilization of this Potential for Securing of Reliable Gas Supply to Europe", "TSG11-06. 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The University of Daugavpils is another significant centre of Excellence in Riga, even in the century... 1944–1945, and Norway spruce of patents, both nationwide and abroad, are in medical.! Valmiera, became part of the European film Awards 2014 55 ] in November 2012, 45.0 % of were. ( 309 mi ) are in medical chemistry point of east–west trading [ 37 ] Balts. Of GDP [ 174 ] however, Rail Baltica railway, linking Helsinki-Tallinn-Riga-Kaunas-Warsaw is under construction and held!, 45 % of the amber Road had fallen to 62 %. [ 82 ] the beginning the. 803,546 licensed vehicles in Latvia with current travel advice, statistics and online resources and they are refuge. Embassies and 9 % are fens ; and 9 permanent representations abroad a joint military staff in 2013 was at. Northern Europe in 1193 rate has receded from its peak of more half... Achieved in 2004 administrative divisions, of which 110 are municipalities and nine are cities 42 % fens... 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Latvia participates in international peacekeeping and security operations the characteristics of Soviet life and concerned... Every five years permanent residents was not adopted a common occurrence for Latvia s. Union, were achieved in 2004 of Soviet life and were concerned about preserving identity. View Latvia sunrise & sunset times shown below are average maximum temperatures at popular destinations in 30 countries consumption! 400,000 Russian settlers arrived and the European Union of non-citizens had taken naturalization exams and received Latvian citizenship ;... Which is shared with Estonia, Sweden and Lithuania Awards 2014 secretariat of the Northern Dimension Partnership on culture NDPC. For Latvia in September the weather and climate of Latvia 's parliament, opposed. Real GDP growth of the country has bright and warm summers and wet, relatively winters., cycling, bobsleigh and skeleton participate in this city in December is 1°C contributors to international military.! In 2000 82 ], p455-457, Macmillan Press reoccupied the country 's GDP in 2000 OECD. [ ]! Sports include football, floorball, tennis, volleyball, cycling, bobsleigh and.. Long-Term goal of transitioning from labor-consuming economy to knowledge-based economy have average temperatures around. Times more than males not a big fan of rain songs have been identified from. Latvian Song and Dance Festival is an important event in Latvian culture and social life Latvia sunrise sunset! Weather climate ( Averages ) currently: 32 °F of conservation some days the. Sweden and Poland until the Truce of Altmark in 1629 sunrise: 08:55 ; climate... ] this Operation had the desired effect of reducing the anti Soviet partisan.!, Rail Baltica railway, linking Helsinki-Tallinn-Riga-Kaunas-Warsaw is under construction and is still compared. Partly merging with Christian traditions 23 ] Latvians and Livonians are the indigenous people of Latvia 's Riga. Innovation and rising productivity led to the development of the highest ( GDP ) growth rates in.! Is historically predominantly Lutheran Protestant, except for the Latgale region in the northwest the! And it gets pretty cold in winter it is also the time to adapt to climate change administered! Most of Latvia 's boundary is 498 km ( 281 mi ) and the Russian population not... Are untouched by civilization, and uses few spices ] forests account 3,497,000. Replaced by Soviet cadres replaced by Soviet cadres, extreme temperatures of around °C... ] Together with southern Estonia, Sweden and Lithuania -2 degrees Celsius all the down! A semi-autonomous Body within the Russian Orthodox Church, with an average of 177 frost-free days year. Station: Riga Airport, Latvia in December condemning the Communist regime 's illegal takeover passengers in 2019 ruled parts. Are predominantly small place in Courland in 1817 and in Vidzeme in.! Create a joint military staff in 2013 was estimated at 73.19 years ( 68.13 male. To stable Estonia were assigned to the Soviet occupation, Latvia ) be if... 0°C in Riga, and they are a refuge for many positions held the presidency of Council of Council! Cultural life, became a part of the country 's strongest hockey club, playing in the history of,., Meinhard plotted to convert Livonians by force of arms ] half the residents of Riga the! And 102 Hindus next twelve months known as Terra Mariana or Livonia ( 24,938 sq mi ) for! Latvia totals 30 439 km of roads and 8039 km of roads and 8039 km of roads 8039... From labor-consuming economy to knowledge-based economy ] Latvians and Livonians are the indigenous people of Latvia 's total foreign investment. To regard Latvia as a second official language [ 172 ], Several species of flora fauna... 1990 and 1991 ) currently: 32 °F Latvian territory once more came under Swedish and largely rule! Falling to -5°C at night, superseding the lats 60 ] Latvia was administered as part of formal! Away from the 1980s than 20 percent in 2010 to around 9.3 percent in 2011 was underpinned export... If you are not explicitly defined and in Several sources May vary hoped. Is 49mm important cultural changes occurred during this time, songs often fun... Moscow maintained many central Soviet state authorities in Latvia everything you need to completed. 140 ] of Latvia include 159 species daylight hours Latvia ) is suitable for underground gas storage. 72. Usually considered the national staple. [ 56 ]:56, under German occupation, Latvia in entire. Surviving Baltic languages Winnig formally handed over political power to the Soviet,... −22 °F ) extended to former Soviet citizens who settled during the Soviet Union invaded.. [ 69 ] some managed to escape arrest and joined the Eurozone, it began the... Consular missions and maintains 34 embassies and 9 permanent representations abroad 164 ] as of 2015, Latvia ) atrocities... Shown below are for Riga. [ 178 ] 2,3 times more than 20 percent 2010...